eCite Digital Repository

A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses


Brake, F and Ross, T and Holds, G and Kiermeier, A and McLeod, C, A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses, Food Microbiology, 44 pp. 264-270. ISSN 0740-0020 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1016/


Impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of Australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. Two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three Australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. The sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. The oysters were tested for norovirus GI, GII and Escherichia coli. Norovirus GII was detected in two of 120 (1.7%) samples and norovirus GI was not detected. One of the norovirus positive samples was cloned and sequenced as GII.3. Five of 120 (4.2%) samples were found to have more than the guidance concentration of 230 E. coli per 100 g of shellfish but these samples did not contain detectable concentrations of norovirus. The apparently low prevalence of norovirus in oysters from Australian growing areas supports epidemiological data that suggests norovirus contamination of Australian oysters is rare. The results from this study emphasise the need for future norovirus control measures for shellfish to be commensurate with the risk associated with the growing area.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:norovirus, shellfish, Escherichia coli, foodborne pathogen
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Microbiology
Research Field:Microbiology not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Food safety
UTAS Author:Brake, F (Ms Felicity Brake)
UTAS Author:Ross, T (Professor Tom Ross)
ID Code:98460
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:20
Deposited By:Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture
Deposited On:2015-02-17
Last Modified:2017-11-02

Repository Staff Only: item control page