Metabolic scope, swimming performance and the effects of hypoxia in the mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus (Pisces: Sciaenidae)
Fitzgibbon, QP and Strawbridge, A and Seymour, RS, Metabolic scope, swimming performance and the effects of hypoxia in the mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus (Pisces: Sciaenidae), Aquaculture, 270, (1-4) pp. 358-368. ISSN 0044-8486 (2007) [Refereed Article]
The culture of the mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus), like many other Sciaenidae fishes, is rapidly growing. However there is no information on their metabolic physiology. In this study, the effects of various hypoxia levels on the swimming performance and metabolic scope of juvenile mulloway (0.34 ± 0.01 kg, mean ± SE, n = 30) was investigated (water temperature = 22 °C). In normoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen = 6.85 mg l−1), mulloway oxygen consumption rate (Mo2) increased exponentially with swimming speed to a maximum velocity (Ucrit) of 1.7 ± < 0.1 body lengths s−1 (BL s−1) (n = 6). Mulloway standard metabolic rate (SMR) was typical for non-tuna fishes (73 ± 8 mg kg−1 h−1) and they had a moderate scope for aerobic metabolism (5 times the SMR). Mulloway minimum gross cost of transport (GCOTmin, 0.14 ± 0.01 mg kg−1 m−1) and optimum swimming velocity (Uopt, 1.3 ± 0.2 BL s−1) were comparable to many other body and caudal fin swimming fish species. Energy expenditure was minimum when swimming between 0.3 and 0.5 BL s−1. The critical dissolved oxygen level was 1.80 mg l−1 for mulloway swimming at 0.9 BL s−1. This reveals that mulloway are well adapted to hypoxia, which is probably adaptive from their natural early life history within estuaries. In all levels of hypoxia (75% saturation = 5.23, 50% = 3.64, and 25% = 1 .86 mg l−1), Mo2 increased linearly with swimming speed and active metabolic rate (AMR) was reduced (218 ± 17, 202 ± 14 and 175 ± 10 mg kg−1 h−1 for 75%, 50% and 25% saturation respectively). However, Ucrit was only reduced at 50% and 25% saturation (1.4 ± < 0.1 and 1.4 ± < 0.1 BL s−1 respectively). This demonstrates that although the metabolic capacity of mulloway is reduced in mild hypoxia (75% saturation) they are able to compensate to maintain swimming performance. GCOTmin (0.09 ± 0.01 mg kg−1 m−1) and Uopt (0.8 ± 0.1 BL s−1) were significantly reduced at 25% dissolved oxygen saturation. As mulloway metabolic scope was significantly reduced at all hypoxia levels, it suggests that even mild hypoxia may reduce growth productivity.
mulloway, hypoxia, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae, metabolic scope, swimming performance, standard metabolic rate, active metabolic rate