eCite Digital Repository

Estimating daily and diurnal variations of illicit drug use in Hong Kong: A pilot study of using wastewater analysis in an Asian metropolitan city


Lai, FY and Bruno, R and Leung, WH and Thai, PK and Ort, C and Carter, S and Thompson, K and Lam, PKS and Mueller, JF, Estimating daily and diurnal variations of illicit drug use in Hong Kong: A pilot study of using wastewater analysis in an Asian metropolitan city, Forensic Science International, 233, (1-3) Article 20. ISSN 0379-0738 (2013) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.09.003


The measurement of illicit drug metabolites in raw wastewater is increasingly being adopted as an approach to objectively monitor population-level drug use, and is an effective complement to traditional epidemiological methods. As such, it has been widely applied in western countries. In this study, we utilised this approach to assess drug use patterns over nine days during April 2011 in Hong Kong. Raw wastewater samples were collected from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving a community of approximately 3.5 million people and analysed for excreted drug residues including cocaine, ketamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and key metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The overall drug use pattern determined by wastewater analysis was consistent with that have seen amongst people coming into contact with services in relation to substance use; among our target drugs, ketamine (estimated consumption: 14001600 mg/day/1000 people) was the predominant drug followed by methamphetamine (180200 mg/day/1000 people), cocaine (160180 mg/day/1000 people) and MDMA (not detected). The levels of these drugs were relatively steady throughout the monitoring period. Analysing samples at higher temporal resolution provided data on diurnal variations of drug residue loads. Elevated ratios of cocaine to benzoylecgonine were identified unexpectedly in three samples during the evening and night, providing evidence for potential dumping events of cocaine. This study provides the first application of wastewater analysis to quantitatively evaluate daily drug use in an Asian metropolitan community. Our data reinforces the benefit of wastewater monitoring to health and law enforcement authorities for strategic planning and evaluation of drug intervention strategies.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:China, wastewater, cocaine, ketamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, illicit drugs, substance consumption
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Clinical and health psychology
Research Field:Health psychology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)
ID Code:86582
Year Published:2013
Web of Science® Times Cited:62
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2013-09-26
Last Modified:2018-04-13

Repository Staff Only: item control page