Multiplatform ocean exploration: Insights from the NEEMO space analog mission
Trembanis, AC and Forrest, AL and Miller, DC and Lim, DSS and Gernhardt, ML and Todd, WL, Multiplatform ocean exploration: Insights from the NEEMO space analog mission, Marine Technology Society Journal, 46, (4) pp. 7-19. ISSN 0025-3324 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Since the beginning of space exploration, methods and protocols of exploration have been developed using space analogs on Earth to reduce research costs, develop safe deployment/retrieval protocols, and ready astronauts for hostile environments in less threatening settings. Space analogs are required as much as ever today as astronauts and scientists develop new tools and techniques for exploration, while working to address evolving mission objectives from low-earth orbit to deepspace exploration. This study examines coordinated human and robotic exploration at the Aquarius Underwater Habitat off of the coast of Key Largo, Florida, in support of the NEEMO 15 (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) program. The exploration scheme presented in this work fuses (1) robotic precursormissions as a means of remote sensing data collection; (2) crowdsourcing to process immense amounts of data to identify key targets of interest that might be missed in the tight cycle of mission operations; and (3) human exploration to examine locations directly up close and collect physical samples that require involved sampling techniques. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and single-person submersibles, called DeepWorkers™, were used as underwater analogs of robotic systems currently being used and human-operated vehicles (HOVs) proposed for use on a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), the Moon, or Mars. In addition to operational lessons learned for space exploration that are directly applicable to ocean exploration, ocean floor mapping provides new levels of detail of benthic habitat critical for coral reef monitoring and management. Opportunistic (onsite adaptive) data sampling also took place by placing self-recording instrumentation onto each of the DeepWorkers, increasing the collection of scientific information during the submersible missions and contributing to mission planning for optimal and efficient use of expensive assets.