Resistance exercise training reduces arterial reservoir pressure in older adults with prehypertension and hypertension
Heffernan, KS and Yoon, ES and Sharman, JE and Davies, JE and Shih, YT and Chen, CH and Fernhall, B and Jae, SY, Resistance exercise training reduces arterial reservoir pressure in older adults with prehypertension and hypertension, Hypertension Research, 36 pp. 422-427. ISSN 0916-9636 (2012) [Refereed Article]
We examined changes in central blood pressure (BP) following resistance exercise training (RET) in men and women with prehypertension and never-treated hypertension. Both Windkessel theory and wave theory were used to provide a comprehensive examination of hemodynamic modulation with RET. Twenty-one participants (age 61 ± 1 years, n = 6 male; average systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 138/84 mm Hg) were randomized to either 12 weeks of RET (n = 11) or an inactive control group. Central BP and augmentation index (AIx) were derived from radial pressure waveforms using tonometry and a generalized transfer function. A novel reservoir-wave separation technique was used to derive excess wave pressure (related to forward and backward traveling waves) and reservoir pressure (related to the capacitance/Windkessel properties of the arterial tree). Wave separation using traditional impedance analysis and aortic flow triangulation was also applied to derive forward wave pressure (Pf) and backward wave pressure (Pb). There was a group-by-time interaction (P < 0.05) for central BP as there was a significant ~ 6 mm Hg reduction in SBP and ~ 7 mm Hg reduction in DBP following RET with no change in the control condition. There were also group-by-time interactions (P < 0.05) for Pf, excess wave pressure and reservoir pressure attributable to reductions in these parameters in the RET group concomitant with slight increases in the control group. There was no change in AIx or Pb (P > 0.05). RET may reduce central BP in older adults with hypertension and prehypertension by lowering Pf and reservoir pressure without affecting pressure from wave reflections.