Bacteria and PAMPs activate nuclear factor κB and Gro production in a subset of olfactory ensheathing cells and astrocytes but not in Schwann cells
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Vincent, AJ and Choi-Lundberg, DL and Harris, JA and West, AK and Chuah, MI, Bacteria and PAMPs activate nuclear factor κB and Gro production in a subset of olfactory ensheathing cells and astrocytes but not in Schwann cells, Glia, 55, (9) pp. 905-916. ISSN 0894-1491 (2007) [Refereed Article]
The primary olfactory nerves provide uninterrupted conduits for neurotropic pathogens to access the brain from the nasal cavity, yet infection via this route is uncommon. It is conceivable that olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which envelope the olfactory nerves along their entire length, provide a degree of immunological protection against such infections. We hypothesized that cultured OECs would be able to mount a biologically significant response to bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The response of OECs to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and various PAMPs was compared to that of Schwann cells (SCs), astrocytes (ACs), and microglia (MG). A subset of OECs displayed nuclear localization of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), an inflammatory transcription factor, after treatment with E. coli (20% ± 5%), lipopolysacchride (33% ± 9%), and Poly I:C (25% ± 5%), but not with peptidoglycan or CpG oligonucleotides. ACs displayed a similar level of activation to these treatments, and in addition responded to peptidoglycan. The activation of OECs and ACs was enhanced by coculture with MG (56% ± 16% and 85% ± 13%, respectively). In contrast, SCs did not respond to any treatment or to costimulation by MG. Immunostaining for the chemokine Gro demonstrated a functional response that was consistent with NFκB activation. OECs expressed mRNA for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, but only TLR4 protein was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that OECs possess the cellular machinery that permits them to respond to certain bacterial ligands, and may have an innate immune function in protecting the CNS against infection. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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