A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity
Butler-Henderson, K and Crawford, J, A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity, Computers and Education, 159 Article 104024. ISSN 0360-1315 (2020) [Refereed Article]
Digitization and automation across all industries has resulted in improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness to systems and process, and the higher education sector is not immune. Online learning, e-learning, electronic teaching tools, and digital assessments are not innovations. However, there has been limited implementation of online invigilated examinations in many countries. This paper provides a brief background on online examinations, followed by the results of a systematic review on the topic to explore the challenges and opportunities. We follow on with an explication of results from thirty-six papers, exploring nine key themes: student perceptions, student performance, anxiety, cheating, staff perceptions, authentication and security, interface design, and technology issues. While the literature on online examinations is growing, there is still a dearth of discussion at the pedagogical and governance levels.