Validation study to determine the accuracy of central blood pressure measurement using the Sphygmocor Xcel cuff device
Schultz, MG and Picone, DS and Armstrong, MK and Black, JA and Dwyer, N and Roberts-Thomson, P and Sharman, JE, Validation study to determine the accuracy of central blood pressure measurement using the Sphygmocor Xcel cuff device, Hypertension, 76 pp. 1-7. ISSN 0194-911X (2020) [Refereed Article]
Numerous devices purport to measure central (aortic) blood pressure (BP) as distinct from conventional brachial BP. This validation study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Sphygmocor Xcel cuff device (AtCor Medical, CardieX, Sydney, Australia) for measuring central BP. 296 patients (mean age 61±12 years) undergoing coronary angiography had simultaneous measurement of invasive central BP and noninvasive cuff-derived central BP using the Xcel cuff device (total n=558 individual comparisons). A subsample (n=151) also had invasive brachial BP measured. Methods were undertaken according to the Artery Society recommendations, and several calibration techniques to derive central systolic BP (SBP) were examined. Minimum acceptable error was ≤5±≤8 mm Hg. Central SBP was significantly underestimated, and with wide variability, when using the default calibration of brachial-cuff SBP and diastolic BP (DBP; mean difference±SD, -7.7±11.0 mm Hg). Similar variability was observed using other calibration methods (cuff 33% form-factor mean arterial pressure and DBP, -4.4±11.5 mm Hg; cuff 40% form-factor mean arterial pressure and DBP, 4.7±11.9 mm Hg; cuff oscillometric mean arterial pressure and DBP, -18.2±12.1 mm Hg). Only calibration with invasive central integrated mean arterial pressure and DBP was within minimal acceptable error (3.3±7.5 mm Hg). The difference between brachial-cuff SBP and invasive central SBP was 3.3±10.7 mm Hg. A subsample analysis to determine the accuracy of central-to-brachial SBP amplification showed this to be overestimated by the Xcel cuff device (mean difference 4.3±9.1 mm Hg, P=0.02). Irrespective of cuff calibration technique, the Sphygmocor Xcel cuff device does not meet the Artery Society accuracy criteria for noninvasive measurement of central BP.