Individual and neighborhood deprivation and carotid stiffness: The Paris Prospective Study III
Climie, RE and Boutouyrie, P and Perier, M-C and Guibout, C and van Sloten, TT and Thomas, F and Danchin, N and Sharman, JE and Laurent, S and Jouven, X and Empana, J-P, Individual and neighborhood deprivation and carotid stiffness: The Paris Prospective Study III, Hypertension, 73, (6) pp. 1185-1194. ISSN 0194-911X (2019) [Refereed Article]
Large artery stiffness is an index of vascular aging associated with cardiovascular mortality. Whereas traditional risk factors for arterial stiffness are known, the contribution of socioeconomic factors is less reported. We sought to determine the relationship between arterial stiffness and socioeconomic deprivation (at the individual and neighborhood levels) in healthy males and females. In 7803 adults, carotid stiffness was determined by high-precision carotid echo-tracking. Individual deprivation data included education, living alone, occupation, and Evaluation of the Deprivation and Inequalities of Health in Healthcare Centers score. Neighborhood deprivation was determined from commune level data (smallest administrative subdivision) available from French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (2011) using principal component analysis. The separate and combined associations between individual and neighborhood deprivation (main exposures) and carotid stiffness (outcome) were quantified using linear and multilevel model adjusted for traditional risk factors. Analyses were conducted separately in males and females. Individual deprivation (lower education and occupation in males and living alone and higher Evaluation of the Deprivation and Inequalities of Health in Healthcare Centers in both populations) was adversely related to carotid stiffness, independently of potential confounders (P<0.05). Neighborhood deprivation was adversely related to carotid stiffness in males (P<0.05), but not in females. Socioeconomic deprivation, both at individual and, to a lesser extent, neighborhood level are associated with carotid stiffness in males. Only individual deprivation is associated with carotid stiffness in females.