The effects of weight loss strategies on gastric emptying and appetite control
Horner, KM and Byrne, NM and Cleghorn, CJ and Naslund, E and King, NA, The effects of weight loss strategies on gastric emptying and appetite control, Obesity reviews, 12, (11) pp. 935-951. ISSN 1467-7881 (2011) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity
The gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the improved appetite control and weight loss in response to bariatric surgery. Other strategies which similarly alter gastrointestinal responses to food intake could contribute to successful weight management. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of surgical, pharmacological and behavioural weight loss interventions on gastrointestinal targets of appetite control, including gastric emptying. Gastrointestinal peptides are also discussed because of their integrative relationship in appetite control. This review shows that different strategies exert diverse effects and there is no consensus on the optimal strategy for manipulating gastric emptying to improve appetite control. Emerging evidence from surgical procedures (e.g. sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) suggests a faster emptying rate and earlier delivery of nutrients to the distal small intestine may improve appetite control. Energy restriction slows gastric emptying, while the effect of exercise-induced weight loss on gastric emptying remains to be established. The limited evidence suggests that chronic exercise is associated with faster gastric emptying, which we hypothesize will impact on appetite control and energy balance. Understanding how behavioural weight loss interventions (e.g. diet and exercise) alter gastrointestinal targets of appetite control may be important to improve their success in weight management.