The orchestrated functions of innate leukocytes and T cell subsets contribute to humoral immunity, virus control, and recovery from secondary poxvirus challenge
Tahiliani, V and Chaudri, G and Eldi, P and Karupiah, G, The orchestrated functions of innate leukocytes and T cell subsets contribute to humoral immunity, virus control, and recovery from secondary poxvirus challenge, Journal of Virology, 87, (7) pp. 3852-61. ISSN 0022-538X (2013) [Refereed Article]
A pivotal role for antigen-specific recall responses to secondary virus infection is well established, but the contribution of innate immune cells to this process is unknown. Recovery of mice from a primary orthopoxvirus (ectromelia virus [ECTV]) infection requires the function of natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), T cells, and B cells. However, during a secondary challenge, resolution of infection is thought to be dependent on antibody but not T cell function. We investigated the contribution of NK cells, granulocytes, and pDC to virus control during a secondary virus challenge in mice that had been primed with an avirulent, mutant strain of ECTV. Mice depleted of NK cells, granulocytes, or pDC effectively controlled virus, as did mice depleted of both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets. However, mice concurrently depleted of all three innate cell subsets had elevated virus load, but this was significantly exacerbated in mice also depleted of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells. Increased viral replication in mice lacking innate cells plus CD4 T cells was associated with a significant reduction in neutralizing antibody. Importantly, in addition to T-dependent neutralizing antibody responses, the function of CD8 T cells was also clearly important for virus control. The data indicate that in the absence of innate cell subsets, a critical role for both CD4 and CD8 T cells becomes apparent and, conversely, in the absence of T cell subsets, innate immune cells help contain infection.
neutrophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, NK cells, CD8 T cells, virus infection, antibody responses