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Cavitation about a jet in crossflow


Brandner, PA and Pearce, BW and De Graaf, KL, Cavitation about a jet in crossflow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 768, (April) pp. 141-174. ISSN 0022-1120 (2015) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2015 Cambridge University Press

DOI: doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.73


Cavitation occurrence about a jet in crossflow is investigated experimentally in a variable-pressure water tunnel using still and high-speed photography. The 0.012 m diameter jet is injected on the centreplane of a 0.6 m square test section at jet to freestream velocity ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1.6, corresponding to jet-velocity-based Reynolds numbers of 25103 to 160103 respectively. Measurements were made at a fixed freestream-based Reynolds number, for which the ratio of the undisturbed boundary layer thickness to jet diameter is 1.18. The cavitation number was varied from inception (up to about 10) down to 0.1. Inception is investigated acoustically for bounding cases of high and low susceptibility to phase change. The influence of velocity ratio and cavitation number on cavity topology and geometry are quantified from the photography. High-speed photographic recordings made at 6 kHz provide insight into cavity dynamics, and derived time series of spatially averaged pixel intensities enable frequency analysis of coherent phenomena. Cavitation inception was found to occur in the high-shear regions either side of the exiting jet and to be of an intermittent nature, increasing in occurrence and duration from 0 to 100 % probability with decreasing cavitation number or increasing jet to freestream velocity ratio. The frequency and duration of individual events strongly depends on the cavitation nuclei supply within the approaching boundary layer. Macroscopic cavitation develops downstream of the jet with reduction of the cavitation number beyond inception, the length of which has a power-law dependence on the cavitation number and a linear dependence on the jet to freestream velocity ratio. The cavity closure develops a re-entrant jet with increase in length forming a standing wave within the cavity. For sufficiently low cavitation numbers the projection of the re-entrant jet fluid no longer reaches the cavity leading edge, analogous to supercavitation forming about solid cavitators. Hairpin-shaped vortices are coherently shed from the cavity closure via mechanisms of shear-layer roll-up similar to those shed from protuberances and jets in crossflow in single-phase flows. These vortices are shed at an apparently constant frequency, independent of the jet to freestream velocity ratio but decreasing in frequency with reducing cavitation number and cavity volume growth. Highly coherent cavitating vortices form along the leading part of the cavity due to instability of the jet upstream shear layer for jet to freestream velocity ratios greater than about 0.8. These vortices are cancelled and condense as they approach the trailing edge in the shear layer of opposing vorticity associated with the cavity closure and the hairpin vortex formation. For lower velocity ratios, where there is decreased jet penetration, the jet upstream shear velocity gradient reverses and vortices of the opposite sense form, randomly modulated by boundary layer turbulence.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:cavitation, vortex shedding, wakes/jets
Research Division:Engineering
Research Group:Maritime engineering
Research Field:Maritime engineering not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Defence
Objective Group:Defence
Objective Field:Maritime
UTAS Author:Brandner, PA (Professor Paul Brandner)
UTAS Author:Pearce, BW (Dr Bryce Pearce)
UTAS Author:De Graaf, KL (Dr Katrina De Graaf)
ID Code:99418
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:NC Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics
Deposited On:2015-03-23
Last Modified:2017-11-01

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