eCite Digital Repository

Evaluating the potential impact of a reformulated version of oxycodone upon tampering, non-adherence and diversion of opioids: the National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study protocol

Citation

Degenhardt, L and Larance, B and Bruno, R and Lintzeris, N and Ali, R and Farrell, M, Evaluating the potential impact of a reformulated version of oxycodone upon tampering, non-adherence and diversion of opioids: the National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study protocol, Addiction, 110, (2) pp. 226-37. ISSN 0965-2140 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction

DOI: doi:10.1111/add.12746

Abstract

Aims: A new oxycodone formulation (Reformulated OxyContin) was released in Australia, early 2014. It was developed as a tamper-resistant ('abuse-deterrent') formulation of the drug. We summarize methods used in the National Opioid Medication Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study, which will examine: (i) whether there is a reduction in extra-medical use (including via tampering) of OxyContin following the introduction of Reformulated OxyContin; (ii) potential changes in extra-medical use of non-abuse-deterrent forms of oxycodone, other pharmaceutical opioids and illicit drugs; (iii) whether methods of tampering with Reformulated OxyContin become widespread over time; (iv) Reformulated OxyContin's attractiveness on the illicit market; and (v) sales, prescriptions and harms related to OxyContin and other drugs.

Methods: There are three major components. First, analyses of existing routine data sources such as: pharmaceutical sales; prescribing data; data on drug overdose deaths; and survey data on drug use in the general population and among people who inject drugs; secondly, specific data on OxyContin collected through the Illicit Drug Reporting System; and thirdly, a prospective cohort of n = 606 people who regularly misuse or tamper with pharmaceutical opioids was formed prior to the introduction of Reformulated OxyContin, followed-up twice post-release to examine potential changes after Reformulated OxyContin's introduction.

Discussion: The study's strengths lie in varied data collections; interrupted time-series analysis; and prospective cohort. To our knowledge, this is one of the most comprehensive and transparently conducted studies conducted to date of the potential impact of an opioid medication upon use, tampering and diversion. Results have the potential to inform policymakers, clinicians, consumers and researchers alike.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:pharmaceutical opioid diversion, prescription drug misuse, abuse deterrence, diversion, opioid dependence, pharmaceutical opioids, post-marketing surveillance, tamper-resistant formulations
Research Division:Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Research Group:Other Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Research Field:Psychology and Cognitive Sciences not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)
Objective Field:Substance Abuse
Author:Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)
ID Code:98347
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:11
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2015-02-12
Last Modified:2017-11-07
Downloads:0

Repository Staff Only: item control page