eCite Digital Repository

Two-Way Tables: Issues at the Heart of Statistics and Probability for Students and Teachers


Watson, J and Callingham, R, Two-Way Tables: Issues at the Heart of Statistics and Probability for Students and Teachers, Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 16, (4) pp. 254-284. ISSN 1098-6065 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

DOI: doi:10.1080/10986065.2014.953019


Some problems exist at the intersection of statistics and probability, creating a dilemma in relation to the best approach to assist student understanding. Such is the case with problems presented in two-way tables representing conditional information. The difficulty can be confounded if the context within which the problem is set is one where students have preconceived opinions on the direction of the potential association present. This article considers school studentsí responses to two problems of association, with data presented in 2 ◊ 2 tables. A hierarchical rubric is presented to document studentsí understandings. Teachersí pedagogical content knowledge is also considered in relation to the same two problems. Findings include a surprising relationship of outcomes for students across the problem contexts and some concern about teachersí pedagogical content knowledge in this area of the curriculum.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:statistical literacy, probability, teachers, students
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Curriculum and pedagogy
Research Field:Mathematics and numeracy curriculum and pedagogy
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Learner and learning
Objective Field:Learner and learning not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Watson, J (Professor Jane Watson)
UTAS Author:Callingham, R (Associate Professor Rosemary Callingham)
ID Code:97523
Year Published:2014
Funding Support:Australian Research Council (LP0669106)
Web of Science® Times Cited:5
Deposited By:Education
Deposited On:2014-12-19
Last Modified:2017-11-10

Repository Staff Only: item control page