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Thinning of kelp canopy modifies understory assemblages: the importance of canopy density

Citation

Flukes, EB and Johnson, CR and Wright, JT, Thinning of kelp canopy modifies understory assemblages: the importance of canopy density, Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 514 pp. 57-70. ISSN 0171-8630 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Inter-Research

DOI: doi:10.3354/meps10964

Abstract

Kelp forests in southeastern Australia form canopies that support complex understory assemblages. Predicted levels of climate change in this region are likely to impact the health and distribution of these forests, potentially resulting in large-scale reductions in canopy cover. This study determined the impacts of a permanent reduction in canopy cover of the dominant kelp in this region, Ecklonia radiata, on the structure of understory algal and sessile invertebrate community assemblages. Changes in assemblages were determined over 12 mo in 3 treatments: unmanipulated, 33% canopy reduction and 66% canopy reduction. Clearance treatments were maintained to simulate the predicted effects of long-term climate-driven canopy reduction. Thinning of E. radiata canopy (especially 66% loss) caused a shift towards a foliose algal-dominated understory, with an associated loss of sponges, bryozoans, and encrusting algae. Canopy loss homogenised existing patchiness in understory assemblages, and high recruitment of E. radiata occurred at both levels of thinning. A 66% reduction in kelp canopy increased understory community diversity, but did not affect species richness. Thus, changes to understory assemblages occurred in a density-dependent manner, with 66% canopy loss required to alter the structure of assemblages at the community scale. Changes at this scale were subtle but important (with stability attributed to a combination of biogeography and resistance to perturbation driven by high diversity), and indicate that partial loss of kelp canopy under future climate change scenarios will shift understory communities towards a foliose algal-dominated state, which has important implications for sessile invertebrates and potentially future recruitment of kelp.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Ecklonia radiate, canopy disturbance, understory assemblages, kelp bed, community ecology, canopy density, seaweeds, community structure
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Environmental Science and Management
Research Field:Conservation and Biodiversity
Objective Division:Environment
Objective Group:Climate and Climate Change
Objective Field:Ecosystem Adaptation to Climate Change
Author:Flukes, EB (Miss Emma Flukes)
Author:Johnson, CR (Professor Craig Johnson)
Author:Wright, JT (Dr Jeffrey Wright)
ID Code:96532
Year Published:2014
Deposited By:NC Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability
Deposited On:2014-11-10
Last Modified:2015-03-24
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