Determination of furfurals in Manuka honey using piston-cylinder liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography
Gras, K and Luong, J and Gras, R and Cortes, HJ and Shellie, RA, Determination of furfurals in Manuka honey using piston-cylinder liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 1362 pp. 43-48. ISSN 0021-9673 (2014) [Refereed Article]
A rapid analytical approach for the direct measurement of furfurals such as 2-furfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural at parts-per-billion level in Manuka honey is described. The approach employs a piston-cylinder based liquid僕iquid extraction device using chloroform extraction solvent. This device substantially reduces extraction time by a factor of 120 times compared to solid phase micro-extraction and reduces solvent consumption by a factor of 25 times compared to liquid僕iquid extraction with mechanical agitation. A recently commercialised capillary column offering a high degree of inertness permits separation and detection of the analytes at ultra-trace level without derivatisation. A three-port planar microfluidic device with a mid-point pressure is also incorporated to back-flush heavier compounds in the matrix to improve column longevity and overall system cleanliness. With this approach, analysis is conducted in less than 7 min. Repeatability of retention times for all compounds is less than 0.1% (n = 20). The compounds cited can be analysed over a range from 1 ng/g to 10 μg/g in honey with a 5 ng/g limit of quantification (LOQ) and correlation coefficients of at least 0.999. Relative precision is less than 2.8% RSD (n = 20) at 50 ng/g level with analyte extraction efficiency of greater than 99% (n = 3) over a range from 5 ng/g to 10 μg/g in the matrix described. The analytical system requires only minimal maintenance and is suitable for remote site deployment. Under the analytical conditions established and with a practical LOQ of 5 ng/g, 100 samples can be analysed before septum/liner/o-ring replacements are needed. As a preventive measure, the pre-column can be replaced once every six months to maintain chromatographic fidelity.