eCite Digital Repository

Determination of furfurals in Manuka honey using piston-cylinder liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography


Gras, K and Luong, J and Gras, R and Cortes, HJ and Shellie, RA, Determination of furfurals in Manuka honey using piston-cylinder liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 1362 pp. 43-48. ISSN 0021-9673 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Elsevier

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.08.055


A rapid analytical approach for the direct measurement of furfurals such as 2-furfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural at parts-per-billion level in Manuka honey is described. The approach employs a piston-cylinder based liquid僕iquid extraction device using chloroform extraction solvent. This device substantially reduces extraction time by a factor of 120 times compared to solid phase micro-extraction and reduces solvent consumption by a factor of 25 times compared to liquid僕iquid extraction with mechanical agitation. A recently commercialised capillary column offering a high degree of inertness permits separation and detection of the analytes at ultra-trace level without derivatisation. A three-port planar microfluidic device with a mid-point pressure is also incorporated to back-flush heavier compounds in the matrix to improve column longevity and overall system cleanliness. With this approach, analysis is conducted in less than 7 min. Repeatability of retention times for all compounds is less than 0.1% (n = 20). The compounds cited can be analysed over a range from 1 ng/g to 10 μg/g in honey with a 5 ng/g limit of quantification (LOQ) and correlation coefficients of at least 0.999. Relative precision is less than 2.8% RSD (n = 20) at 50 ng/g level with analyte extraction efficiency of greater than 99% (n = 3) over a range from 5 ng/g to 10 μg/g in the matrix described. The analytical system requires only minimal maintenance and is suitable for remote site deployment. Under the analytical conditions established and with a practical LOQ of 5 ng/g, 100 samples can be analysed before septum/liner/o-ring replacements are needed. As a preventive measure, the pre-column can be replaced once every six months to maintain chromatographic fidelity.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:2-furfural, 5-methyl-2-furfural, piston-cylinder extraction, mixxor, DB-624UI, Manuka honey
Research Division:Chemical Sciences
Research Group:Analytical chemistry
Research Field:Separation science
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences
UTAS Author:Luong, J (Mr Jim Luong)
UTAS Author:Cortes, HJ (Dr Hernan Cortes)
UTAS Author:Shellie, RA (Professor Robert Shellie)
ID Code:96184
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:7
Deposited By:Austn Centre for Research in Separation Science
Deposited On:2014-10-22
Last Modified:2017-10-27

Repository Staff Only: item control page