The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: toward mapping place attachment
Brown, G and Raymond, CM, The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: toward mapping place attachment, Applied Geography, 27, (2) pp. 89-111. ISSN 0143-6228 (2007) [Refereed Article]
This paper examines the relationships between place attachment and landscape values using two measures of place attachment-a psychometric, scale-based measure [Williams, D. R., & Vaske, J. J. (2003). The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalisability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6), 830-840] and a map-based measure derived from mapped special places [Brown, G. (2005). Mapping spatial attributes in survey research for natural resource management: Methods and applications. Society and Natural Resources, 18(1), 17-39]. We first examine the external validity of a two-dimensional, psychometric place attachment scale in Australia and its relationship with place-based landscape values. The place attachment scale and landscape value measures were included in a mail survey of residents and visitors to the Otways region (Victoria, Australia). Exploratory factor analysis of resident subgroups and visitors demonstrate the place attachment scale consists of two dimensions with high reliability. We use regression analysis to show that landscape importance values, especially spiritual and wilderness values, are significant predictors of the scale-based measure of place attachment. We then examine the relationship between a map-based measure of place attachment and landscape values. We use spatial cross-correlation and regression analyses to show that aesthetic, recreation, economic, spiritual, and therapeutic values spatially co-locate with special places and thus likely contribute to place attachment. We argue that survey mapping of landscape values and special places provides a reasonable proxy for scale-based measures of place attachment while providing richer, place-based information for land use planning. We conclude by introducing the concept of a map-based place attachment index and suggest that survey-based measures of landscape values and special places can be used to assess the risk associated with landscape modification. We provide a map showing one possible place attachment index for the Otways region and discuss its potential application.
local values, participatory GIS, place attachment, scale development, sense of place