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Low exercise blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis


Barlow, PA and Otahal, P and Schultz, MG and Shing, CM and Sharman, JE, Low exercise blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Atherosclerosis, 237, (1) pp. 13-22. ISSN 0021-9150 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.08.029


Objective: The independent prognostic significance of abnormally low systolic blood pressure (SBP) during exercise stress testing (LowExBP) across different clinical and exercise conditions is unknown.We sought by systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between cardiovascular/all cause outcomes and LowExBP across different patient clinical presentations, exercise modes, exercise intensities and categories of LowExBP.

Methods: Seven online databases were searched for longitudinal studies reporting the association of LowExBP with risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events and/or all-cause mortality. LowExBP was defined as either: SBP drop below baseline; failure to increase > 10 mmHg from baseline or; lowest SBP quantile among reporting studies.

Results: After review of 13,257 studies, 19 that adjusted for resting SBP were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 45,895 participants (average follow-up, 4.4 ± 3.0 years). For the whole population, LowExBP was associated with increased risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59–2.53, p < 0.001). In continuous analyses, a 10 mmHg decrease in exercise SBP was associated with higher risk (n = 9 HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.20, p < 0.001). LowExBP was associated with increased risk regardless of clinical presentation (coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or peripheral artery disease), exercise mode (treadmill or bike), exercise intensity (moderate or maximal), or LowExBP category (all p < 0.05). However, bias toward positive results was apparent (Eggers test p < 0.001 and p = 0.009).

Conclusion: Our data show that irrespective of clinical or exercise conditions, LowExBP independently predicts fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:exercise, hypotension, low blood pressure, prognosis, cardiovascular disease
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Sports science and exercise
Research Field:Exercise physiology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Barlow, PA (Mr Paul Barlow)
UTAS Author:Otahal, P (Mr Petr Otahal)
UTAS Author:Schultz, MG (Dr Martin Schultz)
UTAS Author:Shing, CM (Dr Cecilia Kitic)
UTAS Author:Sharman, JE (Professor James Sharman)
ID Code:95094
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:33
Deposited By:Health Sciences A
Deposited On:2014-09-24
Last Modified:2017-11-01

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