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Melting of Ice and Sea Ice into Seawater and Frazil Ice Formation


McDougall, TJ and Barker, PM and Feistel, R and Galton-Fenzi, B, Melting of Ice and Sea Ice into Seawater and Frazil Ice Formation, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44, (7) pp. 1751-1775. ISSN 0022-3670 (2014) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright 2014 American Meteorological Society

DOI: doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0253.1


The thermodynamic consequences of the melting of ice and sea ice into seawater are considered. The International Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawateró2010 (TEOS-10) is used to derive the changes in the Conservative Temperature and Absolute Salinity of seawater that occurs as a consequence of the melting of ice and sea ice into seawater. Also, a study of the thermodynamic relationships involved in the formation of frazil ice enables the calculation of the magnitudes of the Conservative Temperature and Absolute Salinity changes with pressure when frazil ice is present in a seawater parcel, assuming that the frazil ice crystals are sufficiently small that their relative vertical velocity can be ignored. The main results of this paper are the equations that describe the changes to these quantities when ice and seawater interact, and these equations can be evaluated using computer software that the authors have developed and is publicly available in the Gibbs SeaWater (GSW) Oceanographic Toolbox of TEOS-10.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:sea ice, ice melting, ice and seawater interaction
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Oceanography
Research Field:Physical oceanography
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Management of Antarctic and Southern Ocean environments
Objective Field:Antarctic and Southern Ocean oceanic processes
UTAS Author:Galton-Fenzi, B (Dr Ben Galton-Fenzi)
ID Code:94380
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:12
Deposited By:CRC-Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems
Deposited On:2014-09-08
Last Modified:2017-10-31

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