eCite Digital Repository

Exploring the popularity, experiences and beliefs surrounding gluten-free diets in non-coeliac athletes


Lis, DM and Stellingwerff, T and Shing, CM and Ahuja, KDK and Fell, JW, Exploring the popularity, experiences and beliefs surrounding gluten-free diets in non-coeliac athletes, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25, (1) pp. 37-45. ISSN 1543-2742 (2015) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2015 Human Kinetics

DOI: doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0247


Adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for nonceliac athletes (NCA) has become increasingly popular despite a paucity of supportive medical or ergogenic evidence. This study aimed to quantify the demographics of NCA and determine associated experiences, perceptions, and sources of information related to GFD. Athletes (n = 910, female = 528, no gender selected = 5) completed a 17-question online survey. Forty-one percent of NCA respondents, including 18-world and/or Olympic medalists, follow a GFD 50100% of the time (GFD > 50): only 13% for treatment of reported medical conditions with 57% self-diagnosing their gluten sensitivity. The GFD > 50 group characteristics included predominantly endurance sport athletes (70.0%) at the recreationally competitive level (32.3%), between 31 and 40 years of age (29.1%). Those who follow a GFD > 50 reported experiencing, abdominal/gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms alone (16.7%) or in conjunction with two (30.7%) or three (35.7%) additional symptoms (e.g., fatigue) believed to be triggered by gluten. Eighty-four percent of GFD > 50 indicated symptom improvement with gluten-removal. Symptom-based and non-symptom-based self-diagnosed gluten-sensitivity (56.7%) was the primary reason for adopting a GFD. Leading sources of GFD information were online (28.7%), trainer/coach (26.2%) and other athletes (17.4%). Although 510% of the general population is estimated to benefit clinically from a GFD a higher prevalence of GFD adherence was found in NCA (41.2%). Prescription of a GFD among many athletes does not result from evidence-based practice suggesting that adoption of a GFD in the majority of cases was not based on medical rationale and may be driven by perception that gluten removal provides health benefits and an ergogenic edge in NCA.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:gluten, performance, nutrition practices, gastrointestinal symptoms
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Sports science and exercise
Research Field:Sports science and exercise not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Nutrition
UTAS Author:Lis, DM (Mrs Dana Lis)
UTAS Author:Stellingwerff, T (Dr Trent Stellingwerff)
UTAS Author:Shing, CM (Dr Cecilia Kitic)
UTAS Author:Ahuja, KDK (Dr Kiran Ahuja)
UTAS Author:Fell, JW (Associate Professor James Fell)
ID Code:92251
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:75
Deposited By:Health Sciences
Deposited On:2014-06-11
Last Modified:2017-10-31

Repository Staff Only: item control page