Sacre, JW and Jellis, CL and Coombes, JS and Marwick, TH, Diagnostic accuracy of heart-rate recovery after exercise in the assessment of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy, Diabetic Medicine, 29, (9) pp. e312-e320. ISSN 0742-3071 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine Coppyright 2012 Diabetes UK
Methods Clinical assessment of cardiac autonomic neuropathy and maximal treadmill exercise testing for heart-rate recovery were performed in 135 patients with Type 2 diabetes and negative exercise echocardiograms. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was defined by abnormalities in ≥ 2 of 7 autonomic function markers, including four cardiac reflex tests and three indices of short-term (5-min) heart-rate variability. Heart-rate recovery was defined at 1-, 2- and 3-min post-exercise.
Results Patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (n = 27; 20%) had lower heart-rate recovery at 1-, 2- and 3-min post-exercise (P < 0.01). Heart-rate recovery demonstrated univariate associations with autonomic function markers (r-values 0.20–0.46, P < 0.05). Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve revealed good diagnostic performance of all heart-rate recovery parameters (range 0.80–0.83, P < 0.001). Optimal cut-offs for heart-rate recovery at 1-, 2- and 3-min post-exercise were ≤ 28 beats/min (sensitivity 93%, specificity 69%), ≤ 50 beats/min (sensitivity 96%, specificity 63%) and ≤ 52 beats/min (sensitivity 70%, specificity 84%), respectively. These criteria predicted cardiac autonomic neuropathy independently of relevant clinical and exercise test information (adjusted odds ratios 7–28, P < 0.05).
Conclusions Post-exercise heart-rate recovery provides an accurate diagnostic test for cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes. The high sensitivity and modest specificity suggests heart-rate recovery may be useful to screen for patients requiring clinical autonomic evaluation.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||diabetic autonomic neuropathy, exercise test, heart-rate variability, sensitivity and specificity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus|
|Research Division:||Biomedical and Clinical Sciences|
|Research Group:||Cardiovascular medicine and haematology|
|Research Field:||Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases)|
|Objective Group:||Clinical health|
|Objective Field:||Clinical health not elsewhere classified|
|UTAS Author:||Marwick, TH (Professor Tom Marwick)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||24|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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