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Able and willing: Refining the measurement of emotional manipulation


Hyde, J and Grieve, R, Able and willing: Refining the measurement of emotional manipulation, Personality and Individual Differences: An International Journal of Research Into The Structure and Development of Personality and The Causation of Individual Differences, 64 pp. 131-134. ISSN 0191-8869 (2014) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.036


The current study was the first to examine whether someone who believes they have the ability to emotionally manipulate others actually engages in emotionally manipulative behaviour. This was achieved by a factor analysis of 10 items from Austin et al.’s (2007) original emotional manipulation (EM) scale combined with a new scale including the same 10 items, each modified to capture one’s willingness to emotionally manipulate. In addition to completing the emotional manipulation scales, participants (N = 234; 193 females, 41 males) also completed measures of primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy and emotional intelligence. Two interpretable factors emerged from the factor analysis: trait EM-perceived ability and trait EM-willingness. Multiple regressions with the new factors as the dependent variables revealed that primary psychopathy (callousness, deceitfulness) was a predictor of self-reported ability and willingness to emotionally manipulate. However, only secondary psychopathy was a significant predictor of willingness, suggesting that those without anti-social and impulsive traits are more likely to report an ability to emotional manipulate rather than engagement in emotionally manipulative behaviours. Limitations are considered. The results suggest that the modified scale may be a more appropriate measurement of one being willing to emotionally manipulate others.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:emotional manipulation, emotional intelligence, psychopathy, emotion, willingness
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Social and personality psychology
Research Field:Personality and individual differences
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in psychology
UTAS Author:Hyde, J (Ms Jane Hyde)
UTAS Author:Grieve, R (Dr Rachel Grieve)
ID Code:89939
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:18
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2014-03-20
Last Modified:2017-11-03

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