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Monument-antenna effects on GPS coordinate time series with application to vertical rates in Antarctica


King, MA and Bevis, M and Wilson, T and Johns, B and Blume, F, Monument-antenna effects on GPS coordinate time series with application to vertical rates in Antarctica, Journal of Geodesy, 86, (1) pp. 53-63. ISSN 0949-7714 (2012) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2011 Springer-Verlag

DOI: doi:10.1007/s00190-011-0491-x


We examine the electromagnetic coupling of a GPS antenna–monument pair in terms of its simulated affect on long GPS coordinate time series. We focus on the Earth and Polar Observing System (POLENET) monument design widely deployed in Antarctica and Greenland in projects interested particularly in vertical velocities. We base our tests on an absolute robot calibration that included the top ∼0.15 m of the monument and use simulations to assess its effect on site coordinate time series at eight representative POLENET sites in Antarctica over the period 2000.0– 2011.0. We show that the neglect of this calibration would introduce mean coordinate bias, and most importantly for velocity estimation, coordinate noise which is highly sensitive to observation geometry and hence site location and observation period. Considering only sub-periods longer than 2.5 years, we show vertical site velocities may be biased by up to ±0.4 mm/year, and biases up to 0.2 mm/year may persist for observation spans of 8 years. Changing between uniform and elevation-dependent observation weighting alters the time series but does not remove the velocity biases, nor does ambiguity fixing. The effect on the horizontal coordinates is negligible. The ambiguities fixed series spectra shownoise between flicker and randomwalk with near-white noise at the highest frequencies, with mean spectral indices (frequencies <20 cycles per year) of approximately −1.3 (uniform weighting) and −1.4 (elevation-dependent weighting). While the results are likely highly monument specific, they highlight the importance of accounting for monument effects when analysing vertical coordinate time series and velocities for the highest precision and accuracy geophysical studies.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:GPS, time series, monumentation effect, phase centre variation, velocity accuracy
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Geophysics
Research Field:Geodesy
Objective Division:Environmental Policy, Climate Change and Natural Hazards
Objective Group:Understanding climate change
Objective Field:Understanding climate change not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:King, MA (Professor Matt King)
ID Code:89659
Year Published:2012
Web of Science® Times Cited:14
Deposited By:Geography and Environmental Studies
Deposited On:2014-03-11
Last Modified:2017-10-24

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