Wine phenolic and aroma outcomes from the application of controlled phenolic release to Pinot noir
Carew, ALJ and Lloyd, N and Close, DC and Dambergs, RG, Wine phenolic and aroma outcomes from the application of controlled phenolic release to Pinot noir, The 15th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference (AWITC), 13-18 July 2013, Sydney, Australia (2013) [Conference Extract]
Wine phenolic and aroma outcomes from the application of Controlled Phenolic Release to Pinot noir must Approximately 40% of Pinot noir grape must is grape solids which are pressed off as marc, post-fermentation. Rapid phenolic extraction by Controlled Phenolic Release (CPR) offers an alternative to alcoholic fermentation of Pinot noir on pomace. In this independently replicated trial, 1kg lots of Pinot noir grape must were subjected to CPR and pressed off after approximately three hours total skin contact time. CPR juice was inoculated for AF and compared with control wine that was fermented on pomace for 7 days. Analysis of wines by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 210 days post-harvest (6 months bottle age) showed that CPR wines were equivalent to control wines for mean concentration of: total phenolics, total pigment, anthocyanin, total tannin, colour density and pigmented tannin. Non-targeted profiling analysis of volatile aroma compounds was carried out by GCMS-HPLC at 320 days post-harvest (10 months bottle age). Control and CPR wines were distinct from each other for response ratio for 12 out of 16 aroma compounds examined, with CPR wines generally four to six-fold higher for the acetates examined, and two-fold higher for most of the ethyl esters examined. We showed that microwave maceration may reduce constraints on winery capacity by eliminating pomace during fermentation, provide greater control over red wine phenolics, and that CPR may generate wines with distinct aroma qualities.