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Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis: a review with a focus on molecular mechanisms

Citation

O'Gorman, C and Lucas, R and Taylor, B, Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis: a review with a focus on molecular mechanisms, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13, (9) pp. 11718-11752. ISSN 1422-0067 (2012) [Substantial Review]

DOI: doi:10.3390/ijms130911718

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the central nervous system commonly affecting young adults. Pathologically, there are patches of inflammation (plaques) with demyelination of axons and oligodendrocyte loss. There is a global latitude gradient in MS prevalence, and incidence of MS is increasing (particularly in females). These changes suggest a major role for environmental factors in causation of disease. We have reviewed the evidence and potential mechanisms of action for three exposures: vitamin D, Epstein Barr virus and cigarette smoking. Recent advances supporting gene-environment interactions are reviewed. Further research is needed to establish mechanisms of causality in humans and to explore preventative strategies.

Item Details

Item Type:Substantial Review
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Neurosciences
Research Field:Central Nervous System
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Objective Field:Nervous System and Disorders
Author:Taylor, B (Professor Bruce Taylor)
ID Code:87772
Year Published:2012
Web of Science® Times Cited:56
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2013-12-05
Last Modified:2013-12-05
Downloads:0

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