Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions affecting selectivity for neutral and charged solutes on three structurally similar agglomerated ion-exchange and mixed-mode stationary phases
Kazarian, AA and Taylor, MR and Haddad, PR and Nesterenko, PN and Paull, B, Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions affecting selectivity for neutral and charged solutes on three structurally similar agglomerated ion-exchange and mixed-mode stationary phases, Analytica Chimica Acta, 803 pp. 143-153. ISSN 0003-2670 (2013) [Refereed Article]
The nature and extent of mixed-mode retention mechanisms evident for three structurally related, agglomerated, particle-based stationary phases were evaluated. These three agglomerated phases were Thermo Fisher ScientificIon PacAS11-HC – strong anion exchange, Thermo Fisher Scientific IonPac CS10 – strong cation-exchange PS-DVB, and the Thermo Fisher Scientific Acclaim Trinity P1silica-based substrate, which is commercially marketed as a mixed-mode stationary phase. All studied phases can exhibit zwitterionic and hydrophobic properties, which contribute to the retention of charged organic analytes. A systematic approach was devised to investigate the relative ion-exchange capacities and hydrophobicities for each of the three phases, together with the effect of eluent pH upon selectivity, using a specifically selected range of anionic, cationic and neutral aromatic compounds. Investigation of the strong anion-exchange column and the Trinity P1 mixed-mode substrate, in relation to ion-exchange capacity and pH effects, demonstrated similar retention behaviour for both the anionic and ampholytic solutes, as expected from the structurally related phases. Further evaluation revealed that the ion-exchange selectivity of the mixed-mode phase exhibited properties similar to that of the strong anion-exchange column, with secondary cation-exchange selectivity, albeit with medium to high anion-exchange and cation-exchange capacities, allowing selective retention for each of the anionic, cationic and ampholytic solutes. Observed mixed-mode retention upon the examined phases was found to be a sum of anion- and cation-exchange interactions, secondary ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, with possible additional hydrogen bonding. Hydrophobic evaluation of the three phases revealed log P values of 0.38–0.48, suggesting low to medium hydrophobicity. These stationary phases were also benchmarked against traditional reversed-phase substrates namely, octadecylsilica YMC-Pac Pro C18 and neutral μPS-DVB resin IonPac NS1-5u, yielding log P values of 0.57 and 0.52, respectively.