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Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Citation

Schultz, MG and Otahal, P and Cleland, VJ and Blizzard, L and Marwick, TH and Sharman, JE, Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis, American Journal of Hypertension, 26, (3) pp. 357-366. ISSN 0895-7061 (2013) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1093/ajh/hps053

Abstract

Background: The prognostic relevance of a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is ill-defined in individuals undergoing exercise stress testing. The study described here was intended to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to determine the value of exercise-related blood pressure (BP) (independent of office BP) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality.

Methods: Online databases were searched for published longitudinal studies reporting exercise-related BP and CV events and mortality rates.

Results: We identified for review 12 longitudinal studies with a total of 46,314 individuals without significant coronary artery disease, with total CV event and mortality rates recorded over a mean follow-up of 15.2 4.0 years. After adjustment for age, office BP, and CV risk factors, an HRE at moderate exercise intensity carried a 36% greater rate of CV events and mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.83, P = 0.039) than that of subjects without an HRE. Additionally, each 10mm Hg increase in systolic BP during exercise at moderate intensity was accompanied by a 4% increase in CV events and mortality, independent of office BP, age, or CV risk factors (95% CI, 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). Systolic BP at maximal workload was not significantly associated with the outcome of an increased rate of CV, whether analyzed as a categorical (HR=1.49, 95% CI, 0.90-2.46, P = 0.12) or a continuous (HR=1.01, 95% CI, 0.98-1.04, P = 0.53) variable.

Conclusions: An HRE at moderate exercise intensity during exercise stress testing is an independent risk factor for CV events and mortality. This highlights the need to determine underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:exercise, hypertension, prognosis, mortality, cardiovascular risk, blood pressure
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology
Research Field:Cardiology (incl. Cardiovascular Diseases)
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Objective Field:Cardiovascular System and Diseases
Author:Schultz, MG (Dr Martin Schultz)
Author:Otahal, P (Mr Petr Otahal)
Author:Cleland, VJ (Dr Verity Cleland)
Author:Blizzard, L (Professor Leigh Blizzard)
Author:Sharman, JE (Professor James Sharman)
ID Code:81696
Year Published:2013
Web of Science® Times Cited:63
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2012-12-21
Last Modified:2014-05-28
Downloads:0

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