Characteristics of submarine pumice-rich density current deposits sourced from turbulent mixing of subaerial pyroclastic flows at the shoreline: field and experimental assessment
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Allen, SR and Freundt, A and Kurokawa, K, Characteristics of submarine pumice-rich density current deposits sourced from turbulent mixing of subaerial pyroclastic flows at the shoreline: field and experimental assessment, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, (3) pp. 657-675. ISSN 0258-8900 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2011 Springer-Verlag
This study investigates the types of subaqueous deposits that occur when hot pyroclastic flows turbulently mix with water at the shoreline through field studies of the Znp marine tephra in Japan and flume experiments where hot tephra sample interacted with water. The Znp is a very thick, pumice-rich density current deposit that was sourced from subaerial pyroclastic flows entering the Japan Sea in the Pliocene. Notable characteristics are well-developed grain size and density grading (lithic-rich base, pumice-rich middle, and ash-rich top), preponderance of sedimentary lithic clasts picked up from the seafloor during transport, fine ash depletion in coarse facies, and presence of curviplanar pumice clasts. Flume experiments provide a framework for interpreting the origin and proximity to source of the Znp tephra. On contact of hot tephra sample with water, steam explosions produced a gas-supported pyroclastic density current that advanced over the water while a water-supported density current was produced on the tank floor from the base of a turbulent mixing zone. Experimental deposits comprise proximal lithic breccia, medial pumice breccia, and distal fine ash. Experiments undertaken with cold, water-saturated slurries of tephra sample and water did not produce proximal lithic breccias but a medial basal lithic breccia beneath an upper pumice breccia. Results suggest the characteristics and variations in Znp facies were strongly controlled by turbulent mixing and quenching, proximity to the shoreline, and depositional setting within the basin. Presence of abundant curviplanar pumice clasts in submarine breccias reflects brittle fracture and dismembering that can occur during fragmentation at the vent or during quenching. Subsequent transport in water-supported pumiceous density currents preserves the fragmental textures. Careful study is needed to distinguish the products of subaerial versus subaqueous eruptions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
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