Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activation lowers muscle lipids and improves insulin sensitivity in high fat-fed rats: comparison with PPAR-γ activation
Ye, JE and Doyle, PJ and Iglesias, MA and Watson, DG and Cooney, GJ and Kraegen, EW, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activation lowers muscle lipids and improves insulin sensitivity in high fat-fed rats: comparison with PPAR-γ activation, Diabetes, 50, (2) pp. 411-417. ISSN 0012-1797 (2001) [Refereed Article]
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonists lower circulating lipids, but the consequences for muscle lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity are not clear. We investigated whether PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rats and compared the effects with PPAR-γ activation. Three-week high fat-fed male Wistar rats were untreated or treated with the specific PPAR-α agonist WY14643 or the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (both 3 mg x kg-1 x day-1) for the last 2 weeks of high-fat feeding. Like pioglitazone, WY14643 lowered basal plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides (-16% vs. untreated), and leptin (-52%), and also muscle triglyceride (-34%) and total long-chain acyl-CoAs (LCACoAs) (-41%) (P < 0.05). In contrast to pioglitazone, WY14643 substantially reduced visceral fat weight and total liver triglyceride content (P < 0.01) without increasing body weight gain. WY14643 and pioglitazone similarly enhanced whole-body insulin sensitivity (clamp glucose infusion rate increased 35 and 37% and glucose disposal 22 and 15%, respectively, vs. untreated). Both agents enhanced insulin-mediated muscle glucose metabolic index (Rg') and reduced muscle triglyceride and LCACoA accumulation (P < 0.05). Although pioglitazone had more potent effects than WY14643 on muscle insulin sensitization, this was associated with its greater effect to reduce muscle LCACoA accumulation. Overall insulin-mediated muscle Rg' was inversely correlated with the content of LCACoAs (r = -0.74, P = 0.001) and with plasma triglyceride levels (r = -0.77, P < 0.001). We conclude that even though WY14643 and pioglitazone, representing PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activation, respectively, may alter muscle lipid supply by different mechanisms, both significantly improve muscle insulin action in the high fat-fed rat model of insulin resistance, and this effect is proportional to the degree to which they reduce muscle lipid accumulation.