Dietary carbohydrate and cholesterol influence the number of particles and distributions of lipoprotein subfractions in guinea pigs
Torres-Gonzalez, M and Volek, J and Sharman, MJ and Contois, JH and Fernandez, ML, Dietary carbohydrate and cholesterol influence the number of particles and distributions of lipoprotein subfractions in guinea pigs, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2006 Nov, (17(11)) pp. 773-9. ISSN 0955-2863 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Guinea pigs (n=10/group) were fed one of three diets: a high carbohydrate (CHO) (42% energy), low cholesterol (0.04%) diet (LChHC), a diet with the same amount of CHO but with 0.25% cholesterol (HChHC) or a diet with 11% of energy from CHO and 0.25% cholesterol (HChLC) for 12 weeks. VLDL- and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were higher in the HChLC and HChHC groups than in the LChHC group (P<.0001). Lipoprotein subclasses and size were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dietary cholesterol (HChHC and HChLC groups) resulted in larger VLDL particles (71.1+/-6.9, 78.9+/-3.33 nm, respectively) than those in the LChHC group (44.3+/-10.8 nm). In addition, there were higher concentrations of the large VLDL (>60 nm) and the medium VLDL (>35 nm) in the high cholesterol groups (P<.01). Similarly, the concentration of the medium (>8.2 nm) and small HDL (>7.2 nm) was higher in the HChHC and HChLC groups (P<.001). In contrast, CHO restriction affected the concentrations of LDL subfractions. The number of total LDL particles was lower in the HChLC (291.3+/-85.0 nmol/L) than in the HChHC group (467.6+/-113.1 nmol/L), indicating that the cholesterol in LDL was distributed in less particles in the former group. The concentrations of medium LDL (>19.8 nm) (98.4+/-90.8) and small LDL (>18 nm) (29.3+/-24.9 nmol/L) were lower in the HChLC group than in the HChHC group (261.8+/-105.8 and 64.9+/-27.9 nmol/L, respectively). These results indicate that dietary cholesterol increased the atherogenicity of both VLDL and HDL while CHO restriction increased the number of large LDL and decreased the concentrations of the more atherogenic smaller LDL subfractions.