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Sex differences in long-term outcomes after stroke: functional outcomes, handicap, and quality of life


Gall, SL and Pham, TL and Martin, K and Blizzard, L and Srikanth, V, Sex differences in long-term outcomes after stroke: functional outcomes, handicap, and quality of life, Stroke, 43, (7) pp. 1982-1987. ISSN 0039-2499 (2012) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

Copyright 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

DOI: doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.632547


There has been recent interest in sex differences in stroke with a focus on the first 3 months after stroke. We recently reported that females had more severe strokes, higher short-term mortality, and different management in comparison to males. This was explained by females' greater age and prevalence of comorbidities at stroke onset, findings supported by a recent review. Others have suggested that being female is a risk factor for poorer outcomes in the acute period independent of age and other covariates, raising the possibility of a sex bias in the diagnosis or treatment of stroke in females. Alternatively, biological differences between the sexes could influence outcome. For example, differences in muscle strength could explain worse functional outcomes in females. Despite this recent interest, there has been little discussion of sex differences with regard to outcome in the longer term after stroke. This review addresses this gap, exploring sex differences in (1) functional outcomes, also known as "activity limitations" and historically as "disability"; (2) handicap, also known as "restriction of participation"; and (3) quality of life.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:stroke, outcome, sex differences
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Epidemiology
Research Field:Epidemiology not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Gall, SL (Associate Professor Seana Gall)
UTAS Author:Pham, TL (Ms Tran Pham)
UTAS Author:Martin, K (Dr Kara Martin)
UTAS Author:Blizzard, L (Professor Leigh Blizzard)
UTAS Author:Srikanth, V (Dr Velandai Srikanth)
ID Code:78897
Year Published:2012
Web of Science® Times Cited:82
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2012-08-02
Last Modified:2017-11-02

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