Thermoregulatory Responses to Exercise in the Heat: Chronic Caffeine Intake Has No Effect
Roti, MW and Casa, DJ and Pumerantz, AC and Watson, G and Judelson, DA and Dias, JC and Ruffin, K and Armstrong, LE, Thermoregulatory Responses to Exercise in the Heat: Chronic Caffeine Intake Has No Effect, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 77, (2) pp. 124-129. ISSN 0095-6562 (2006) [Refereed Article]
INTRODUCTION: Authorities advise individuals to refrain from caffeine intake before or during exercise, especially when performed in the heat, due to potential fluid-electrolyte imbalances that exaggerate physiological strain. Yet, military personnel are often deployed to hot environments and must perform under sleep-deprived conditions where caffeine would be an ideal intervention strategy to enhance physical and cognitive performance.
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of controlled chronic and acute caffeine ingestion on fluid-electrolyte, physiological and thermoregulatory responses during an exercise heat tolerance test (EHT).
METHODS: Subjects were 59 active, college-aged males (mean +/- SE 21.6 +/- 0.4 yr, 177.9 +/- 0.8 cm, 75.4 +/- 1.0 kg, 11.1 +/- 0.7% body fat) who were randomized and stratified by age, bodyweight, and body composition into three groups. All subjects equilibrated caffeine intake at 3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for days 1-6. On days 7-12, they consumed a treatment dose of either 0 (G0), 3 (G3), or 6 (G6) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Fluid-electrolyte and physiological measures were made on day 12, 1 h after caffeine intake, during the EHT (90 min walking, 1.56 m x s(-1), 5% grade; dry bulb temperature, 37.7 +/- 0.1 degree C; relative humidity, 56.3 -1.5%).
RESULTS: There were no between-group differences (p > 0.05) in plasma, urinary, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual variables across time (pre- vs. post-EHT), although some of these variables increased significantly over time (p < 0.05). EHT time was significantly greater in G3 (86 +/- 2.0 min) vs. GO (75 +/- 3.3 min, p < 0.05).
DISCUSSION: Acute caffeine ingestion, in chronically consuming subjects (3 and 6 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) did not alter fluid-electrolyte, exercise endurance or thermoregulatory responses during EHT when compared with G0.