STIM1 is necessary for store-operated calcium entry in turning growth cones
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Mitchell, CB and Gasperini, RJ and Small, DH and Foa, LC, STIM1 is necessary for store-operated calcium entry in turning growth cones, Journal of Neurochemistry, 122, (6) pp. 1155-66. ISSN 0022-3042 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2012 The Authors
Copyright 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry
Coordinated calcium signalling is vital for neuronal growth cone function and axon pathfinding. Although store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has been suggested to be an important source of calcium in growth cone navigation, the mechanisms that regulate calcium signalling, particularly the regulation of internal calcium stores within growth cones, are yet to be fully determined. Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) is a calcium-sensing protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that interacts with Orai proteins in the plasma membrane to initiate SOCE and refilling of intracellular calcium stores. We hypothesize that STIM1- and Orai1/2-mediated SOCE are necessary for growth cone turning responses to extracellular guidance cues. We show that STIM1 and Orai reorganize into puncta upon store depletion and during growth cone turning with STIM1 localization biased towards the turning side (high calcium side) of the growth cone. Importantly, STIM1 knock-down perturbed growth cone turning responses to the guidance cues brain-derived neurotrophic factor and semaphorin-3a (Sema-3a), as well as abolishing Sema-3a-induced growth cone collapse. Furthermore, STIM1 knock-down abolished SOCE induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not Sema-3a. Our data suggest that STIM1 is essential for correct growth cone navigation, playing multiple roles in growth cone motility, including the activation of SOCE. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a well-described phenomenon in non-excitable cells, but its role in excitable cells, such as neurons, is poorly understood. We demonstrate that the key mediator of SOCE, a calcium-sensing protein known as STIM1, is required for growth cone turning towards BDNF and away from Semaphorin-3a. We found that while STIM1 does regulate SOCE in growth cones, it also acts in a calcium independent manner in response to semaphorin-3a signalling, suggesting novel signalling mechanisms in growth cones. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.
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