Kestila, P and Magnussen, CG and Viikari, JSA and Kahonen, M and Hutri-Kahonen, N and Taittonen, L and Jula, A and Loo, B-M and Pietikainen, M and Jokinen, E and Lehtimaki, T and Kivimaki, M and Juonala, M and Raitakari, OT, Socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 32, (3) pp. 815-821. ISSN 1079-5642 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which socioeconomic status (SES) in young adults is associated with cardiovascular risk factor levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and their changes over a 6-year follow-up period.
Methods and Results: The study population included 1813 subjects participating in the 21- and 27-year follow-ups of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (baseline age 24–39 years in 2001). At baseline, SES (indexed with education) was inversely associated with body mass index (P = 0.0002), waist circumference (P < 0.0001), glucose (P = 0.01), and insulin (P = 0.0009) concentrations; inversely associated with alcohol consumption (P = 0.02) and cigarette smoking (P < 0.0001); and directly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P = 0.05) and physical activity (P0.006). Higher SES was associated with a smaller 6-year increase in body mass index (P = 0.001). Education level and IMT were not associated (P0.58) at baseline, but an inverse association was observed at follow-up among men (P = 0.004). This became nonsignificant after adjustment with conventional risk factors (P = 0.11). In all subjects, higher education was associated with a smaller increase in IMT during the follow-up (P = 0.002), and this association remained after adjustments for conventional risk factors (P = 0.04).
Conclusion: This study shows that high education in young adults is associated with favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile and 6-year change of risk factors. Most importantly, the progression of carotid atherosclerosis was slower among individuals with higher educational level.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness, education, socioeconomic status|
|Research Division:||Medical and Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology|
|Research Field:||Cardiology (incl. Cardiovascular Diseases)|
|Objective Group:||Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)|
|Objective Field:||Cardiovascular System and Diseases|
|Author:||Magnussen, CG (Dr Costan Magnussen)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||16|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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