Online sample pre-concentration via dynamic pH junction in capillary and microchip electrophoresis
Kazarian, AA and Hilder, EF and Breadmore, MC, Online sample pre-concentration via dynamic pH junction in capillary and microchip electrophoresis, Journal of Separation Science, 34, (20) pp. 2800-2821. ISSN 1615-9314 (2011) [Refereed Article]
Various analytical techniques have been developed over the years to analyse a large diversity of biomolecules with a constant push towards ultra-sensitive detection. CE is at the forefront of the most powerful analytical tools available to date when considering its superior efficiency and resolution; however, the technique suffers from poor sensitivity as a result of the short path length at the detection site and small injection volumes (typically
o1% capillary length). One of the approaches to abate the inherent problem is to employ clever chemistry using sample focusing techniques whereby a large sample plug can be injected, preconcentrated and separated, producing excellent sensitivity and efficiency at the detector. This particular review will focus on the use of dynamic pH junction as a means of improving sensitivity in CE and focuses on the use of a change in analyte ionisation due to different pHs between the sample and electrolyte. The review provides a fundamental discussion of the mechanisms, buffer and sample conditions required to
concentrate various analytes and a comprehensive list of published works in tabular format for easy identification of suitable conditions for new applications. The review further encompasses the use of dynamic pH junction in CE and its involvement in combination with other preconcentrations techniques to produce high sensitivity enhancements recorded between the years 1990–2010.