Ultra-trace level analysis of morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol in steam condensate by gas chromatography with multi-mode inlet, and flame ionization detection
Luong, J and Shellie, RA and Cortes, H and Gras, B and Hayward, T, Ultra-trace level analysis of morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol in steam condensate by gas chromatography with multi-mode inlet, and flame ionization detection, The Journal of Chromatography A, 1229 pp. 223-229. ISSN 0021-9673 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Steam condensate water treatment is a vital and integral part of the overall cooling water treatment process. Steam condensate often contains varying levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen which acts as an oxidizer. Carbon dioxide forms corrosive carbonic acid when dissolved in condensed steam. To neutralize
the harmful effect of the carbonic acid, volatile amine compounds such as morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol are often employed as part of a strategy to control corrosion in the water treatment process. Due to the high stability of these compounds in a water matrix, the indirect addition of such chemicals into the process via steam condensate often results in their presence throughout the process and even into the final product. It is therefore important to understand the impact of these chemicals and their fate within a chemical plant. The ability to analyze such compounds by gas chromatography has historically been difficult due to the lack of chromatographic system inertness at the trace level concentrations especially in an aqueous matrix. Here a highly sensitive, practical, and reliable gas chromatographic approach is described for the determination of morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol in steam condensate at the part-per-billion (ppb) levels. The approach does not require any sample enrichment or derivatization. The technique employs a multi-mode inlet operating in pulsed splitless mode with programmed inlet temperature for sample introduction, an inert base-deactivated capillary column for solute separation and flame ionization detection. Chromatographic performance was further enhanced by the incorporation of 2-propanol as a co-solvent. Detection limits for morpholine, cyclohexylamine, diethylaminoethanol were established to be 100 ppb (v/v), with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 6% at the 95% confidence level (n = 20) and a percent recovery of 96% or higher for the solutes of interest over a range of 0.1–100 ppm (v/v). A complete analysis can be conducted in less than 10 min.
Gas Chromatography, Water treatment process, Morpholine, Cyclohexylamine, Diethylaminoethanol, Amine