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Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum identified as the causative organism of pinnatoxins in Australia, New Zealand and Japan


Rhodes, L and Smith, K and Selwood, A and McNab, P and Munday, R and Suda, S and Molenaar, S and Hallegraeff, GM, Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum identified as the causative organism of pinnatoxins in Australia, New Zealand and Japan, Phycologia, 50, (6) pp. 624-628. ISSN 0031-8884 (2011) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright 2012 International Phycological Society

DOI: doi:10.2216/11-19.1


The producers of pinnatoxins E and F were first identified through systematic light microscopy-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) screening of New Zealand (NZ) dinoflagellate isolates. Pinnatoxins E, F and G were subsequently detected for South Australian (AUS) isolates, and a pinnatoxin G producer was recently identified from Okinawa, Japan. The NZ, AUS and Japanese isolates appear morphologically identical to Mediterranean field samples recently described as Vulcanodinium rugosum. Motile forms (24–32 μm long, 20–30 μm wide) have a wide, deeply incised cingulum displaced by 17% of the cell length and a deep sulcus. Photosynthetic motile cells have the same distinctive apical pore complex with raised collar and short canal plate. The reticulate thecal ornamentation resembles that of Bysmatrum because the three intercalary plates are connected. The posterior sulcal plate Sp does not touch the cingulum (as in Bysmatrum, Pentapharsodinium and Ensiculifera). The plate formula for the NZ, AUS and Japanese isolates is Po, X, 4', 3a, 7", 6c (5c + T), 5s, 5'", 2"". The dominant non-motile life-cycle stage comprises clusters of brown to black, spherical, unornamented, non-calcareous division cells (30–35 μm diameter). Genetically these isolates fall within the Peridiniales, closely related to the calciodinellid genera, Pentapharsodinium, Ensiculifera and Scrippsiella. The large subunit (LSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences exhibit sequence differences compared to each other and to the French field material (96–97% LSU and 84–88% ITS similarity, respectively). This variation and pinnatoxin profile differences suggest a possible species complex.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Vulcanodinium rugosum, Peridiniales, pinnatoxins, toxic dinoflagellates
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Phycology (incl. marine grasses)
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Fisheries - aquaculture not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
ID Code:76064
Year Published:2011
Web of Science® Times Cited:69
Deposited By:IMAS Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2012-02-27
Last Modified:2017-11-03
Downloads:6 View Download Statistics

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