Overview of innovation policy affecting knowledge flows in EU member states
Arundel, A and Vonortas, N, Overview of innovation policy affecting knowledge flows in EU member states, Knowledge Flows in European Industry, Routledge, Caloghirou Y, Constantelou A, and Vonortas N (ed), Oxon, pp. 321-331. ISBN 0415327075 (2006) [Research Book Chapter]
Copyright Anthony Arundel and Nicholas S. Vonortas 2006.
In Europe, public policies affecting the production and dissemination of
innovation-related knowledge are implemented at various levels of governance:
supranational (European Union - EU), national (member states) and local. Supranational policies have been especially useful for establishing dense science and technology intensive networks across the continent.
Primary policy tools serving that purpose have been the international cooperative research programmes such as those organized through the Research and Technology Development (RTD) Framework Programmes and EUREKA.]
The FJ,"amework Programmes (FPs) encourage knowledge flows by limiting financial subsidies to collaborative research projects that involve multiple
partners, drawn from either the private sector or from public research institutions (PRIs). The latter includes both universities and specialized
research organizations such as the Fraunhofer Institutes in Germany and TNO in the Netherlands. Special emphasis has been placed on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), universities and PRIs, considered key for innovation and yet facing particular problems with regards to their efficient integration in the European technical enterprise. In addition, the EU's Structural Funds subsidize infrastructural projects in Europe's less economically-developed regions. Some of the Structural Funds are used to develop the public research infrastructure and networks with other European research institutions.