The Lost World: Environmental Effects During the Formation of a Giant Volcanic Province
Coffin, MF and Frey, FA and Wallace, P, The Lost World: Environmental Effects During the Formation of a Giant Volcanic Province, ODP Highlights; International Scientific Contributionss from the Ocean Drilling Program, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, USA, 1, 1, p. 20. (2003) [Internal Newsletter]
Large igneous provinces (LIPs) form when extraordinary amountsof mantle-derived magma enter regions of the Earths crust. Theintense igneous activity during their creation temporarily increasesthe flux of mass and energy from the mantle to the crust, hydro-sphere, biosphere, and atmosphere, with many possible globalenvironmental effects. During Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, LIPs have typicallyformed in geologically brief (1-10 million year) episodes. Theyoungest LIP formed ~15 million years ago. On continentallithosphere, LIPs are also known as continental flood basalts,which are relatively well studied. Several are associated with massextinctions and environmental changes, although causal relation-ships and feedback loops are not well understood. On transition-al and oceanic lithosphere, respectively, divergent volcanicmargins and oceanic plateaus are relatively understudied, withdrilling being the primary means of sampling. Ocean drilling at the two most voluminous LIPs on Earth, the KerguelenPlateau/Broken Ridge in the southern Indian Ocean and the Ontong Java Plateau in the western Pacific, has providedinformation on the processes that form LIPs and their potentialenvironmental consequences.