The role of motivational and volitional factors for self-regulated running training: Associations on the between- and within- person level
Scholz, U and Nagy, G and Schuez, BEC and Ziegelmann, JP, The role of motivational and volitional factors for self-regulated running training: Associations on the between- and within- person level, British Journal of Social Psychology, 47 pp. 421-439. ISSN 0144-6665 (2008) [Refereed Article]
Objectives. Most studies examine associations between social-cognitive variables
and self-regulated behavioural change across two or three occasions only. This study
adopts an innovative perspective by analysing associations across 11 occasions, which
allows examining patterns of associations both on the between- and within-person levels.
Method. Thirty initially untrained participants of a running training programme
completed 11 monthly questionnaires. All questionnaires assessed motivational and
volitional variables and self-reported running. Additionally, net running time of
marathon, or half-marathon distance at the end of programme, was available.
Results. Self-efficacy turned out to be associated with intentions on the betweenand
within-person levels. Individual differences in change patterns and within-person
fluctuations in volitional variables, intentions, and self-efficacy turned out to be
consistently associated with change patterns and within-person fluctuations in selfregulated
running training over time and with successfully running marathon or halfmarathon
Conclusions. In contrast to examining only one facet of change, this study is the first
to differentiate two components of change in health behaviour self-regulation: a
systematic trend component, and a component representing within-person unsystematic
fluctuations. Thus, results of the present study provide a comprehensive picture
of the dynamic relations between motivational, volitional, and behavioural
characteristics which occur between and within persons.