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Mineralization and fluid evolution of the Jiyuan polymetallic Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China

Citation

Chen, H and Yang, J and Baker, M, Mineralization and fluid evolution of the Jiyuan polymetallic Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China, International Geology Review, 54, (7) pp. 816-832. ISSN 0020-6814 (2012) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2012 Taylor & Francis

DOI: doi:10.1080/00206814.2011.581800

Abstract

The newly discovered Jiyuan Cu–Ag–(Pb–Zn–Au) deposit is located in the southern section of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt, Xinjiang, northwestern China. It is the first documented deposit in the large Aqikekuduke Ag–Cu–Au belt in the eastern Tianshan orogen. Detailed field observations, parageneses, and fluid inclusion studies suggest an epithermal ore genesis for the main Cu–Ag mineralization, accompanied by a complicated hydrothermal alteration history most likely associated with the multi-stage tectonic evolution of the eastern Tianshan. The Jiyuan Cu–Ag ore bodies are located along the EW-striking, south-dipping Aqikekuduke fault and are hosted by Precambrian marble and intercalated siliceous rocks. Early-stage skarn alteration occurred along the contact zone between the marble layers and Early Carboniferous diorite–granodiorite and monzogranite intrusions; the skarns are characterized by diopside–tremolite–andradite–pyrite–(magnetite) assemblages. Local REE-enriched synchysite–rutile–arsenopyrite–(clinochlorite–microcline–albite) assemblages are related to K–Na alteration associated with the monzogranite intrusions and formed under conditions of high temperature (310◦C) and high salinity (19.9 wt.% NaCl). Subsequent hydrothermal alteration produced a series of quartz and calcite veins that precipitated from medium- to low-temperature saline fluids. These include early ‘smoky’ quartz veins (190°C; 3.0 wt.% NaCl) that are commonly barren, coarse-grained Cu–Ag mineralized quartz veins (210°C; 2.4 wt.% NaCl), and late-stage unmineralized calcite veins (140°C; 1.1 wt.% NaCl). Tremolite and Ca-rich scapolite veins formed at an interval between early and mineralized quartz veins, indicating a high-temperature, high-salinity (>500°C; 9.5 wt.% NaCl) Ca alteration stage. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Cu–Ag mineralization and an external low-temperature Ca-rich fluid is inferred to have evolved in the ore-forming system. The Jiyuan auriferous quartz veins possess fluid characteristics distinct from those of the Cu–Ag mineralized quartz veins. CO2-rich fluid inclusions, fluid boiling, and mixing all demonstrate that these auriferous quartz veins acted as hosts for the orogenic-type gold mineralization, a common feature in the Tianshan orogenic belt.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Cu-Ag mineralization, epithermal deposits, fluid inclusions, Tianshan
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Geology
Research Field:Ore Deposit Petrology
Objective Division:Mineral Resources (excl. Energy Resources)
Objective Group:Mineral Exploration
Objective Field:Copper Ore Exploration
Author:Chen, H (Dr Huayong Chen)
Author:Baker, M (Dr Michael Baker)
ID Code:74861
Year Published:2012 (online first 2011)
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Centre for Ore Deposit Research - CODES CoE
Deposited On:2011-12-14
Last Modified:2014-10-14
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