Cost-consequence analysis in a French setting of screening and optimal treatment of nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes
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Palmer, AJ and Chen, R and Valentine, WJ and Roze, S and Bregman, B and Mehin, N and Gabriel, S, Cost-consequence analysis in a French setting of screening and optimal treatment of nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes & Metabolism, 32, (1) pp. 69-76. ISSN 1262-3636 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Aim: Forty percent of hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients develop nephropathy (microalbuminuria/overt nephropathy), indicating end organ damage, increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and death. In France, screening rates and nephropathy treatment are suboptimal. We assessed the health economic impact of nephropathy screening in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes followed by optimal antihypertensive/nephroprotective therapy in those who have nephropathy in France. Methods: A Markov/Monte Carlo model simulated lifetime impacts of screening for albuminuria (microalbuminuria/overt nephropathy) using semi-quantitative urine dipsticks in a primary care setting, and subsequent addition of irbesartan 300 mg to conventional therapy in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients identified as having nephropathy. Progression from no renal disease to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was simulated. Probabilities, utilities and costs of CVD events, medications and ESRD treatment came from published sources. Cumulative incidence of ESRD, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct costs were projected. Second-order Monte Carlo simulation accounted for uncertainty in multiple parameters. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Results: Screening and optimized treatment led to a 42% reduction in the cumulative incidence of ESRD from 10.1 ± 9.9% without screening to 5.8 ± 5.7%, improvements in life expectancy of 0.38 ± 0.59 years, improvements of 0.29 ± 0.32 QALYs, and decreased costs of €4,812 ± 7,882/patient over 25 years. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust. Screening was most beneficial when performed in younger patients. Conclusion: In hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, screening for albuminuria followed by optimal antihypertensive/nephroprotective treatment improves patient outcomes and leads to cost savings in France. © 2006 Masson, all rights reserved.
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