Cost-effectiveness of basal insulin from a US health system perspective: Comparative analyses of detemir, glargine, and NPH
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Valentine, WJ and Palmer, AJ and Erny-Albrecht, KM and Ray, JA and Cobden, D and Foos, V and Lurati, FM and Roze, S, Cost-effectiveness of basal insulin from a US health system perspective: Comparative analyses of detemir, glargine, and NPH, Advances in Therapy: The International Journal of Drug, Device and Diagnostic Research, 23, (2) pp. 191-207. ISSN 0741-238X (2006) [Refereed Article]
The purpose of this study was to compare in clinical and economic terms the long-acting insulin analogue detemir with intermediate-acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and with long-acting insulin glargine. Investigators used the validated Center for Outcomes Research (CORE) Diabetes Model to project clinical and cost outcomes over a 35-year base case time horizon; outcome data were extracted directly from randomized, controlled trials designed to compare detemir with NPH and with insulin glargine. Modeled patient characteristics were derived from corresponding trials, and simulations incorporated published quality-of-life utilities with cost data obtained from a Medicare perspective. Detemir, when compared with NPH, increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.698 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Lifetime direct medical costs were increased by $10,451 per patient, although indirect costs were reduced by $4688. On the basis of direct costs, the cost per QALY gained with detemir was $14,974. In comparison with glargine, detemir increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.063 QALYs, reduced direct medical costs by $2072 per patient, and decreased indirect costs by $3103 (dominant). Reductions in diabetes-related comorbidities were also associated with detemir in both instances, most notably in the complications of retinopathy and nephropathy. Relative reductions in rates of complications were greatest in the comparison of detemir with NPH. Results were most sensitive to variation in hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c) levels. However, variation among any of the key assumptions, including HbA 1c, did not alter the relative results. Detemir represents an attractive clinical and economic intervention in the US health care setting compared with both NPH insulin and insulin glargine. ©2006 Health Communications Inc.
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