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Development and validation of a diabetes knowledge questionnaire


Eigenmann, CA and Skinner, TC and Colagiuri, R, Development and validation of a diabetes knowledge questionnaire, Practical Diabetes International, 28, (4) pp. 166-170d. ISSN 1357-8170 (2011) [Refereed Article]

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The definitive published version is available online at:

DOI: doi:10.1002/pdi.1586


An Australian National Consensus Position on Outcomes and Indicators for Diabetes Education identified knowledge and understanding as the outcomes most directly affected by diabetes education. A subsequent literature review failed to identify a validated, suitable questionnaire for measuring knowledge. Consequently, we aimed to develop a minimum diabetes knowledge questionnaire (DKQ) suitable for people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Content validity was established through literature review, Delphi survey of 52 opinion leaders and a workshop of Australian Diabetes Educators (n ≥300). The resulting instrument was tested for internal consistency on 129 and for reliability on 57 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.

The final questionnaire contains: 12 multiple choice questions common to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, e.g. normal blood glucose levels, complications, diet, exercise, selfmonitoring of blood glucose, annual check-ups, support services, and sick-days; two questions for people on oral medication/insulin only; and one question (sick-days) for people with type 1 diabetes only.

For the first 12 questions, the internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s α=0.73); with the additional item for type 1 diabetes, the internal consistency was slightly better (α=0.79) as it was with the additional items for people on medication/insulin (α=0.76). No particular item seemed to adversely affect the overall consistency of the questionnaire.

Comparing test-retest pilots, total scores showed good reliability with no evidence of change over time (t=1.73; df=56; p<0.85), and a correlation of 0.62.

The DKQ is now ready to use for evaluating knowledge outcomes of diabetes education.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:outcome, measure, knowledge, questionnaire, diabetes education
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Nutrition and dietetics
Research Field:Nutrition and dietetics not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Skinner, TC (Professor Timothy Skinner)
ID Code:74216
Year Published:2011
Deposited By:Rural Clinical School
Deposited On:2011-11-15
Last Modified:2012-10-24
Downloads:3 View Download Statistics

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