Childhood Environmental and Genetic Predictors of Adulthood Obesity: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Juonala, M and Juhola, J and Magnussen, CG and Wurtz, P and Viikari, JSA and Thomson, R and Seppala, I and Hernesniemi, J and Kahonen, M and Lehtimaki, T and Hurme, M and Telama, R and Mikkila, V and Eklund, C and Rasanen, L and Hintsanen, M and Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L and Kivimaki, M and Raitakari, OT, Childhood Environmental and Genetic Predictors of Adulthood Obesity: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96, (9) pp. E1542-E1549. ISSN 0021-972X (2011) [Refereed Article]
Context: Obesity from childhood to adulthood is associated with adverse health later in life.
Increased youth BMI is a risk factor for later obesity, but it is unknown whether identification of
other risk factors, including recently discovered genetic markers, would help to identify children
at risk of developing adult obesity.
Objectives: Our objective was to examine the childhood environmental and genetic predictors of
Design, Setting, and Participants:Wefollowed 2119 individuals of the Cardiovascular Risk inYoung
Finns Study for up to 27 yr since baseline (1980, age 3–18 yr).
Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated adult obesity [body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2].
Results: The independent predictors (P 0.05) of adult obesity included childhood BMI, C-reactive
protein (CRP), family income (inverse), mother’s BMI, and polymorphisms near genes TFAP2B, LRRN6C,
in predicting obesity compared with the approach using data only on BMI (C-statistics 0.751 vs. 0.772,
P0.0015). InclusionofdataonchildhoodCRPandnovelgeneticvariants forBMIdidnotincrementally
improve C-value (0.779, P0.16).Anonlaboratory risk score (childhood BMI, mother’s BMI, and family
income) predicted adult obesity in all age groups between 3–18 yr (P always 0.001).
Conclusions: Childhood BMI, CRP, family income (inversely), mother’s BMI, and polymorphisms
near genes FLJ35779, TFAP2B, and LRRN6C are independently related to adulthood obesity. However,
because genetic risk markers and CRP only marginally improve the prediction, our results
indicate that children at high risk of adult obesity can be identified using a simple non-laboratorybased