Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation
Fitzgerald, AJ and Rai, PS and Marchbank, T and Taylor, GW and Ghosh, S and Ritz, BW and Playford, RJ, Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation, Gut: An International Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 54, (6) pp. 775-781. ISSN 0017-5749 (2005) [Refereed Article]
Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support "intestinal health". However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity. Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [ 3H] thymidine incorporation into epithelial rat intestinal RIE-1 and human colonic HT29 cells. Effects on restitution (cell migration) were analysed using wounded HT29 monolayers and its ability to influence gastric injury analysed using a rat indomethacin restraint model. Partial characterisation of bioactive agents was performed using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Results: Both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased by about threefold when added at 1 mg/ml (p<0.01). Gastric injury was reduced by 59% when gavaged at 25 mg/ml (p<0.05), results similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 12.5 μg/ml. The vast majority of biological activity was soluble in ethanol, with glutamine in its single, di-, and tripeptide forms probably accounting for approximately 40% of the total bioactivity seen. Fatty acid constituents may also have contributed to cell migratory activity. Conclusions: Fish protein hydrolysate possesses biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies appear justified.