Polymerisation and surface modification of methacrylate monoliths in polyimide channels and polyimide coated capillaries using 660 nm light emitting diodes
Walsh, Z and Levkin, PA and Abele, S and Scarmagnani, S and Heger, D and Klan, P and Diamond, D and Paull, B and Svec, F and Macka, M, Polymerisation and surface modification of methacrylate monoliths in polyimide channels and polyimide coated capillaries using 660 nm light emitting diodes, Journal of Chromatography A, 1218, (20) pp. 2954-2962. ISSN 0021-9673 (2011) [Refereed Article]
An investigation into the preparation of monolithic separation media utilising a cyanine dye sensitiser/triphenylbutylborate/N-methoxy-4-phenylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate initiating system activated by 660 nm light emitting diodes is reported. The work demonstrates multiple uses of red-light initiated polymerisation in the preparation of monolithic stationary phases within polyimide and polyimide coated channels and the modification of monolithic materials with molecules which absorb strongly in the UV region. This initiator complex was used to synthesise poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dirnethacrylate) monolithic stationary phases in polyimide coated fused silica capillaries of varying internal diameters, as well as within polyimide micro-fluidic chips. The repeatability of the preparation procedure and resultant monolithic structure was demonstrated with a batch of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths in 100 mu m id. polyimide coated fused silica capillary, which were applied to the separation of a model protein mixture (ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, myoglobin and ovalbumin). Taking an average from 12 chromatograms originating from each batch, the maximum relative standard deviation of the retention factor (k) for the protein separations was recorded as 0.53%, the maximum variance for the selectivity factor (alpha) was 0.40% while the maximum relative standard deviation in peak resolution was 8.72%. All maxima were recorded for the Ribonuclease A/Cytochrome C peaks.
Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the success of experiments in which poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths were prepared using the same initiation approach in capillary and micro-fluidic chips, respectively. The initiating system was also applied to the photo-initiated grafting of a chromophoric monomer onto poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths within poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coated fused silica capillaries.