Lymphotoxin alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor are required for stromal cell expression of homing chemokines in B and T cell areas of the spleen
Ngo, VN and Korner, H and Gunn, MD and Schmidt, KN and Riminton, DS and Cooper, MD and Browning, JL and Sedgwick, JD and Cyster, JG, Lymphotoxin alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor are required for stromal cell expression of homing chemokines in B and T cell areas of the spleen, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 189, (2) pp. 403-412. ISSN 0022-1007 (1999) [Refereed Article]
Mice deficient in the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin (LT) α/β lack polarized B cell follicles in the spleen. Deficiency in CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), also causes loss of splenic follicles. Here we report that BLC expression by follicular stromal cells is defective in TNF-, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-, LTα- and LTβ-deficient mice. Treatment of adult mice with antagonists of LTα1β2 also leads to decreased BLC expression. These findings indicate that LTα1β2 and TNF have a role upstream of BLC/CXCR5 in the process of follicle formation. In addition to disrupted follicles, LT- deficient animals have disorganized T zones. Expression of the T cell attractant, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), by T zone stromal cells is found to be markedly depressed in LTα-, and LTβ-deficient mice. Expression of the SLC-related chemokine, Epstein Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), is also reduced. Exploring the basis for the reduced SLC expression led to identification of further disruptions in T zone stromal cells. Together these findings indicate that LTα1β2 and TNF are required for the development and function of B and T zone stromal cells that make chemokines necessary for lymphocyte compartmentalization in the spleen.