Unimpaired autoreactive T-cell traffic within the central nervous system during tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Korner, H and Goodsall, AL and Lemckert, FA and Scallon, BJ and Ghrayeb, J and Ford, AL and Sedgwick, JD, Unimpaired autoreactive T-cell traffic within the central nervous system during tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America. Proceedings, 92, (24) pp. 11066-11070. ISSN 0027-8424 (1995) [Refereed Article]
The critical role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator in autoimmune inflammatory processes is evident from in vivo studies with TNF- blocking agents. However, the mechanisms by which TNF, and possibly also its homologue lymphotoxin α, contributes to development of pathology in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease and in animal models like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is unclear. Possibilities include regulation of vascular adhesion molecules enabling leukocyte movement into tissues or direct cytokine-mediated effector functions such as mediation of tissue damage. Here we show that administration of a TNF receptor (55 kDa)-IgG fusion protein prevented clinical signs of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Significantly, the total number of CD4+ T lymphocytes isolated from the central nervous system of clinically healthy treated versus diseased control animals was comparable. By using a CD45 congenic model of passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to enable tracking of myelin basic protein-specific effector T lymphocytes, prevention of clinical signs of disease was again demonstrated in treated animals but without quantitative or qualitative impediment to the movement of autoreactive T lymphocytes to and within the central nervous system. Thus, despite the uninterrupted movement of specific T lymphocytes into the target tissue, subsequent disease development was blocked. This provides compelling evidence for a direct effector role of TNF/lymphotoxin α in autoimmune tissue damage.