Comprehensive profiling of cartilage extracellular matrix formation and maturation using sequential extraction and label-free quantitative proteomics
Wilson, R and Diseberg, AF and Gordon, L and Zivkovic, S and Tatarczuch, L and Mackie, EJ and Gorman, JJ and Bateman, JF, Comprehensive profiling of cartilage extracellular matrix formation and maturation using sequential extraction and label-free quantitative proteomics, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, 9, (6) pp. 1296-1313. ISSN 1535-9476 (2010) [Refereed Article]
Articular cartilage is indispensable for joint function but has limited capacity for self-repair. Engineering of neocartilage in vitro is therefore a major target for autologous cartilage repair in arthritis. Previous analysis of neocartilage has targeted cellular organization and specific molecular components. However, the complexity of extracellular matrix (ECM) development in neocartilage has not been investigated by proteomics. To redress this, we developed a mouse neocartilage culture system that produces a cartilaginous ECM. Differential analysis of the tissue proteome of 3-week neocartilage and 3-day postnatal mouse cartilage using solubility-based protein fractionation targeted components involved in neocartilage development, including ECM maturation. Initially, SDS-PAGE analysis of sequential extracts revealed the transition in protein solubility from a high proportion of readily soluble (NaCl-extracted) proteins in juvenile cartilage to a high proportion of poorly soluble (guanidine hydrochloride-extracted) proteins in neocartilage. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap) and statistical analysis were then used to filter three significant protein groups: proteins enriched according to extraction condition, proteins differentially abundant between juvenile cartilage and neocartilage, and proteins with differential solubility properties between the two tissue types. Classification of proteins differentially abundant between NaCl and guanidine hydrochloride extracts (n = 403) using bioinformatics revealed effective partitioning of readily soluble components from subunits of larger protein complexes. Proteins significantly enriched in neocartilage (n = 78) included proteins previously not reported or with unknown function in cartilage (integrin-binding protein DEL1; coiled-coil domain-containing protein 80; emilin-1 and pigment epithelium derived factor). Proteins with differential extractability between juvenile cartilage and neocartilage included ECM components (nidogen-2, perlecan, collagen VI, matrilin-3, tenascin and thrombospondin-1), and the relationship between protein extractability and ECM ultrastructural organization was supported by electron microscopy. Additionally, one guanidine extract-specific neocartilage protein, protease nexin-1, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry as a novel component of developing articular cartilage in vivo. The extraction profile and matrix-associated immunostaining implicates protease nexin-1 in cartilage development in vitro and in vivo.